Fabulous Flatworms

Australian flatworm

One of the common animals in my yard and garden is the flatworm. Strictly speaking, “the” flatworm here in New Zealand is actually multiple species—possibly up to a hundred—but they have been poorly studied, so it’s unclear just how many species there are.

Flatworms are some of the most impressive predators in the garden, able to consume prey up to 55 times their own size. That’s the equivalent of your house cat taking down a female elk. They eat snails, slugs, and earthworms, digesting them externally before sucking them up with one or more mouths located midway along their bodies.

I love to find flatworms around the yard. They come in striking colours, and some have lovely brown stripes—the orange Australian flatworm (Australoplana sanguinea) is most common in my garden, followed by the relatively nondescript brown New Zealand flatworm (Arthurdendyus triangulatus). Like the slugs they eat, they prefer damp places, and they protect themselves with a layer of mucous. Flatworm mucus is stickier than slug mucous, and they use it to attach themselves to their prey during feeding.

New Zealand is full of non-native invasive organisms, but New Zealand flatworms are one of the few organisms that have turned the tables and become pests overseas. They are easily transported in potted plants, and have successfully invaded Ireland and Scotland. Though there was widespread panic at first about their potential to threaten the local ecology, they appear to have caused little damage to earthworm populations in the UK. Like most cold-blooded animals, their appetites are small. Far from being a devouring hoard, each flatworm can manage, on average, just one earthworm per week. And if they don’t manage to find an earthworm every week, it’s not a problem—they can go a year without eating.

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